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Parallel Combinational Chemistry to Produce Ester

- Esters are defined as molecules consisting of a carbonyl group which is adjacent to an ether linkage. They are polar molecules which are less polar than alcohols but more so than ethers, due to their degree of hydrogen bonding ability. Most often derived from reacting an alcohol with a carboxylic acid, esters are a unique, ubiquitous class of compounds with many useful applications in both natural and industrial processes 1. For example, within mammals, esters are used in triglycerides and other lipids as they are the main functional group attacking fatty acids to the glycerol chain 2....   [tags: fisher esterification,carboxylic acid, grape odour]

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Kinetics Of Ester Hydrolysis Catalyzed By Digestion

- Kinetics of Ester Hydrolysis Catalyzed By Imidazole Experiment 3 Ban He Lab Partner: Colton Kincy TA: Ally Fairman September 19, 2014 Abstract: The purpose of the experiment was to study the kinetics of the hydrolysis of ester, p-nitrophenyl acetate (NPA) that is catalyzed by the buffer imidazole (Im). In terms of kinetics, specifically speaking, the rate of reaction as determined by the concentration, reaction orders, and rate constant with each species in a chemical reaction. By using the concentration of the catalyst and the temperature, the overall reaction rate was determined....   [tags: Chemical reaction, Chemical kinetics]

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My Observation At The Ester Jetter Preschool

- ... She played in the kitchen by herself for about 15 minutes. This included picking up plates and silverware as well as “shaking” parmesan cheese in her bowl to “stir it up” and “eat” it. While she was playing in the kitchen by herself, she was talking aloud as if there were people around her. She was even giggling and laughing; she even continued to do so when an adult walked up to talk to her. Animism is the tendency to attribute life to objects that are not alive (Papalia, Feldman & Martorell, 2012) and while up in the loft, Savannah interacted with a stuffed mouse and stuffed monkey....   [tags: Gender, Gender role, Left-handedness, Hand]

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Is Triglyceride or Ethel Ester Fish Oil Better?

- The Truth about Fish Oil The purpose of this report is to explore the controversial dispute between the quality of two different forms of fish oil supplementation; Triglyceride (TG) and Ethyl Ester (EE). Fish oil can be implemented into a diet by eating either fish or taking supplements. Fish oil is extracted from selected fish that contain highly beneficial healthy oils known as omega-3 fatty acids, two of the most important omega-3 fatty acids that are found in fish oil are Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) and Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA)....   [tags: acid, body, vitamin]

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Character Analysis of Ester Greenwood in The Bell Jar

- In the disturbingly passionate novel, The Bell Jar, Esther Greenwood begins her spiraling journey into madness because of her struggles with trust and preset expectations. Once a small town girl, Esther feels like she is not truly enjoying the experiences New York has to offer her. Knowing that she is very fortunate that her writing skills and exceptional grades have given her this opportunity, Esther desperately tries to be thankful for winning the contest but just can’t. The story deliberately starts with Esther voicing her opinion about The Rosenberg Electrocution trial....   [tags: journey, trust, expectations]

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Equilibrium Constant of an Ester Hydrolysis Reaction

- The Equilibrium Constant of an Ester Hydrolysis Reaction Abstract The first step in determining the equilibrium constant of an ester hydrolysis reaction is to prepare five different reaction mixtures with the volume given in Table 1. the bottles have different mixtures of HCl, H2O, an unknown ester, and one bottle has alcohol. We will later determine the equilibrium constant for the reaction between the unknown ester and water to produce an unknown alcohol, and unknown acid....   [tags: Chemistry]

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ROP Mechanism: Cyclic Ester Polymerization by Tin(II) Octoate

- Introduction Polymerization of cyclic esters has attracted a lot of interest for the synthesis of biodegradabale/ biocompatible polymeric materials, such as polylactide, polyglycolide and also other polymer compound such as linear polycarbonate. Ring opening polymerization of cyclic ester compounds is better than step polymerization for obtaining high Mw polymers in a controlled “living” fashion, while avoiding the formation of by-products. Tin octoate (tin(II) bis(2-ethyl hexanoate)), Sn(Oct)2) is one of the most used initiator in the polymerization of cyclic esters....   [tags: Research Analysis]

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Ester's Search in Sylvia Plath's The Bell Jar

- Ester's Search in The Bell Jar “I couldn’t stand the idea of a woman having to have a single pure life and a man being able to have a double life, one pure and one not” (Plath 66). Ester is against the conventional attitude of what a woman’s place in society is and expresses this in a number of ways throughout the book. Ester tells us her views on the sexual relationship between a man and a woman, motherhood, and the kind of career that is considered practical. Ester’s view on purity is described in the above quote, and as a result she feels the need to lose her virginity....   [tags: Plath Bell Jar Essays]

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How Organic Molecules React And Synthesize

- ... The left over portions were put together and gave us the alcohol that we started with. This basic idea of working the reaction backwards to find what the reactants were is referred to as retrosynthetic analysis3 Procedure: The lab started with dissolving 1.002g of 4-aminophenol in 3 mL of water, and 1.25 mL acetic anhydride was added to the test tube. The solution was thoroughly mixed before allowing it to cool to room temperature. Once the solution was at room temperature we immersed it into one of the ice baths that were previously prepared....   [tags: Acetic acid, Ester, Carboxylic acid, Alcohol]

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Plant Oils Into Biodiesel

- Transesterification of Plant Oils into Biodiesel Purpose: The purpose of this experiment is to perform transesterification of an oil, either canola, olive, or vegetable oil, with methanol (1,2). Fatty acid methyl esters, FAMEs, was the product of this process (1,2). 1H-NMR was used to determine the FAMEs produced and which oil was used at the start of this experiment. Transesterification is the conversion of a mixture of glycerol esters and methanol into a mixture of methyl esters and glycerol (10)....   [tags: Fatty acid, Fat, Ester, Methanol]

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The Effect Of Biodiesel On The Production Of Biodiesel

- ... After three rinses, the biodiesel was transferred to a beaker and heated at 70-80°C for 15 minutes. After purification, 4.45 ml of biodiesel had been produced. 1ml of biodiesel was then transferred to a tube and placed in an ice-salt bath at -11°C for 20 minutes to gel and determine the freezing point. Five drops of the biodiesel were mixed with 1ml of deionized water to determine the pH of the sample. Two cotton swabs, one dipped in the biodiesel and one in waste vegetable oil, were then both set on fire to analyze its combustion rate....   [tags: Fatty acid, Fat, Linoleic acid, Ester]

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The Bell Jar by Sylvia Plath

- Literature is the superlative resource when one is attempting to comprehend or fathom how society has transformed over the centuries. Many written works—whether fictional or nonfictional—express the views of gender roles and societies’ expectations. Sylvia Plath’s The Bell Jar is an exemplary novel that explores these issues. Ester Greenwood was portrayed the superficial and oppressive values of the mid-twentieth century American society through her experiences of gender inequalities and social conformities....   [tags: society, gender stereotype ]

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Preparing and Observing the Properties of Esthers

- ... Apparatus and Materials  Hot Plate  1 Test tube  Test tube rack  Methanol (2 ml)  Concentrated sulphuric acid (4 drops)  250 ml beaker  Test tube holder  Salicylic acid (2grams)  Electronic balance  Evaporating dish Method and Procedures  2 ml of methanol was poured in a test tube  1 gram of salicylic acid was added  4 drops of concentrated sulphuric acid was then added to the solution in the test tube.  The test tube was then placed in a beaker filled with water and placed on the hot plate until it got to a gentle boil....   [tags: chemistry experiments]

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Summary Of ' The Great Divide '

- One: The Great Divide Inside a tiny pale boxlike house with a brown door Ester bolted upright in the morning chill, her heart palpating rapidly from last night 's dream. For a moment she lay there having no idea where she was. Gradually, as the haze lifted and her pulse slowed, she rolled over and propped herself up on an elbow, "Momma, I saw red-hot flames pouring out of smokestacks and soaring into the sky." She said as she wiped the sleep out of her eyes and glanced over at her delicate mother who was bent down placing items in a bright green satchel....   [tags: 2006 singles, 2007 singles, Debut albums]

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Phytochemical & Antioxidant Activity

- 3. Results and Discussion 3.1. Phytochemical analysis Phytochemicals, especially phenolics are known to be major bioactive compounds for health benefits. Plant extracts containing different classes of polyphenols are very attractive in the food industry. Therefore, in this study, the total phenolics content and total flavonoids content of the faba beans’ extract were investigated. Folin-Ciocalteu phenol method estimated a total phenolic content of 22.415 GAE equivalents (µg GAE/mg sample). The presence of a high phenolic amount in the faba seeds indicates its potential as a good natural antioxidant....   [tags: UNderutilized Legume Vicia Faba Seeds]

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Energy Demand

- 1. Introduction Due to the economic growth, the energy demand of the world increase every year. In the energy conversion process in power plants and small engines, energy efficiency is a key factor. The equipments with higher efficiency, the more work output. Therefore, a number of researches studied on thermodynamics of efficiency, irreversibility and exergy in both spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines were found during the last century. The thermal efficiency and the energy loss in the system are normally calculated from the 1st law of thermodynamics, while the maximum work output or exergy is characterized by the 2nd law of thermodynamics....   [tags: Environment, Thermodynamics]

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Questions and Answers: Associationistic Theory of Learning

- Associationistic 1. Define and describe what is meant by an Associationistic Theory of Learning. (1/2 point) To understand the meaning of Associationistic Theory of learning is relevant to understanding what associationistic means. Associationistic is a "school of psychology that holds that the content of consciousness can be explain by the association and reassociation of irreducible sensory and perceptual elements" ("Associationistic," 2014). Therefore, the point to all associationist theories is that there are associations made that leads to learning....   [tags: pavlov, classical conditioning]

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Is Bingo A Form Of Gambling?

- Michelle Shaw sat down in the same chair she always sits -- front row, fifth chair in from the center aisle -- and set down her sheets. After her sheets were arranged in the proper order, Shaw taped them together to increase her speed during the game. Next came the daubers, bottles that dispense ink through a round sponge when pressed onto the paper. Lastly she placed the Christmas trees, ranging from three to six inches tall, in a semi-circle around the papers. The trees are what brought her luck, or so she claimed....   [tags: Addiction, Problem gambling, Drug addiction]

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Chemistry Lab: Molecular Formulas

- In 2 week long Chemistry lab I was given unknown liquid numbered 29 which I had to find through the experiments that I learned from the beginning of the semester. After conducting experiments I acquired empirical formula, molecular weight, molecular formula, density and boiling point temperature in order for me to find what the substance is. Using molecular formula I plan on looking into few websites that my professor provided us such as: ChemBlink, ChemSpider and PubChem to help me find what substances I should be looking into....   [tags: ChemBlink, ChemSpider and PubChem]

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History of Glow Sticks

- A glow stick is a self-reliant, instant light source. It consists of a translucent plastic tube containing secluded substances when combined can produce light. It does not require any extra external energy sources. The light cannot be turned off after it is “lite”, but it is said that glow sticks can actually be used again by putting it in the freezer overnight then cracking it once more. Glow sticks are used in many ways some for emergency settings, recreation, entertainment, and in the military because they are portable and easy to activate....   [tags: usage, entertainment, energy sources]

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Negative Effects of Pesticides

- Pesticides are an enormous benefit to society when used properly. Crop production is increased, produce is preserved, and infestations and exotic species are controlled. There are over a billion pounds of pesticides used annually in the US with over 20,000 marketed products. Unfortunately, it is estimated that there are 10,000 to 20,000 people diagnosed with acute cholinergic syndrome from pesticide poisonings that occur every year in the United States. People who are at the highest risk for exposure account for more than 2 million workers....   [tags: acute cholinergic syndrome, chemicals]

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Heterocyclic Chemistry: The Knorr Synthesis of Pyrroles

- The Knorr synthesis of the pyrrole, 2,4-diethoxycarbonyl-3,5-dimethylpyrrole, was achieved using an α-amino ketone, ethyl acetoaminoacetate and reacting it with its predecesso r, ethyl acetoacetate in a double condensation reaction . The product was analysed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass spectrometry and IR spectroscopy giving positive results . Introduction Pyrrole has been a molecule of great interest due to its heterocyclic aromatic properties. The lone pair on the nitrogen is delocalised within the ring, causing the heterocycle to be electron-rich ....   [tags: Chemistry]

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Enzymes And The Enzyme Substrate Complex

- ... at lower temperatures. As a result, some metabolic processes occur rapidly at the human body temperature of 37˚C, which is relatively cool in terms of chemical reactions. The way in which enzymes operate is similar to the way in which a key operates a lock. This analogy, the ‘lock and key’ theory first postulated in 1894 by Emil Fischer, describes the way in which substrates bind to the active site of the enzyme. The substrate is the key whilst the cleft of the active site is the lock. Only the correct shaped key fits into the key hole of a lock, and so, only specific substrates can bind with the active site of an enzyme....   [tags: Metabolism, Enzyme, Adenosine triphosphate]

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Chemistry of Taste and Smell

- The human body does amazing things on a daily basis. All the senses that the body uses consists of nerves, neurotransmitters and the brain decodes the messages that was received. Smell is the passing of odorants through the nose, received by the olfactory cells, and are sent directly to the brain. Taste is the weakest of the five senses but it is the sensory function of the central nervous system( The Science of Taste and Smell). We taste and smell things every day but little do most people know that these two senses work together to make life even more satisfactory....   [tags: Chemistry Essays]

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Is Palm Oil Is Everywhere?

- ... In these tropical area, the water requirement is meet mostly met by rainwater in its 25 years’ lifetime. The land has to be prepared which can include removing past vegetation and piling it into neat rows of natural decomposition. Planting points are marked for new palms and then planting holes are dug. A dosage of basic fertilizer is pit n and oil palms are ready to be planted. Seedlings are raised in nurseries for about 12 months before being ready to transplantation. After about 2 and half- 3 years, the palm oil starts to bear bunches....   [tags: Palm oil, Oil palm, Petroleum, Malaysia]

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Tests on the Medical Effectivness of Phlomis Younghusbandii Mukerjee

- ... Good dose-dependent effects were obtained in most of these tests, except in the hot plate test and the acetic acid-induced Evans blue leakage test. These findings suggested that the aqueous extract of P. Younghusbandii, abundance with iridoid glycosides and phenylethanoid glycosides, has significant antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. Keywords:Phlomis Younghusbandii Mukerjee; Iridoid glycoside; phenylethanoid glycosides; Antinociceptive activity; Anti-inflammatory activity Abbreviations: AEPY, Aqueous extract of Phlomis Younghusbandii Mukerjee HPLC, High performance liquid chromatography; LD50, Median lethal dose; ERP, Edema Ratio Phlomis YounghusbandiiMukerjee is a pere...   [tags: anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, phenylethanoid]

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Fossil Fuel Leads to Pollution

- ... [2].Bio-diesel is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal oils. In simple terms, bio-diesel is the product when a vegetable oil or animal oil chemically reacts with an alcohol (methanol, ethanol, propanol and butanol) to produce a fatty acid alkyl ester. Different types of catalyst are used. Glycerol is produced as a byproduct. Bio-diesel can be synthesized from vegetable oils, animal oils and recycled cooking oils [3]. Edible vegetable oils such as canola, soybean, sun flower and corn have been used for bio-diesel production and are proven diesel substitutes [4, 5]....   [tags: diesiel engines, bio-diesiel]

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Grace Throughout the Bible

- I will look at the lives of Moses, Haggai and Ester who with God’s grace overcame huge obstacles in their families, situations, and beliefs to further God’s Kingdom in amazing ways. In Philip Yancey’s Book What’s so Amazing About Grace. Yancey says that grace, “Contains the essence of the gospel as a drop of water can contain the image of the sun.” (Yancey, 12) This and God’s promise that his grace will never leave us makes grace an incredible theme throughout the Bible. Grace is an incredible thing that is defined in a variety of ways....   [tags: Overcoming Imperfection, Esther, Moses]

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Identifying an Organic Unknown

- Identifying an Organic Unknown Aim: In this investigation I will get a number of unknown organic compounds. Which i have to identify by using a number of different chemical and physical techniques. The only thing is known about the compound is that it contains one of the functional group: alcohol, aldehyde, ketone, carboxylic acid, phenol and ester. Therefore I devised a sequence of tests that would identify which one of the groups the sample contains. The flow chart below shows the chemical techniques, which I will use to identify the functional group of the unknown....   [tags: Papers]

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Optimization of Ritalin for more Effective Results

- Ritalin (Methylphenidate) Optimization Ritalin Pills Abstract: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is currently the dominating psychiatric disorder found in children. The creation of the drug Ritalin based on the molecule Methylphenidate in the early 90’s sparked a widespread use of this psycho stimulant, which still remains as one of the most popular drugs used to counteract the symptoms of ADHD. My ultimate goal in this research project is to design analogs for the drug Ritalin in the hopes of discovering a more effective version of this medication....   [tags: Methylphenidate Pills Medication ADD ADHD]

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Chemistry: Gas-Liquid Chromatography

- Extraction To obtain oils from plant materials steam distillation is typically used. Solvent extraction is also used to create a resinoid (resembling characteristics of resin). Solvent extraction is commonly used with volatile substances that may be lost with distillation. Solvent used are pentane, hexane, and mixes of solvents such as ethyl acetate and hexane which is commonly used in place of benzene (see Figure 2). Gas-Liquid Chromatography Gas-Liquid Chromatography is the process of separating complex mixtures into the components and measuring the individual components....   [tags: extraction, resinoid, benzene]

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Purim the Jewish Holiday

- Response Paper Purim Purim is the Jewish holiday commemorating how the Jews of Persia escaped total annihilation thanks to the bravery of Queen Ester. Purim occurs on the 14th of Adar, (or in certain walled cities like Jerusalem, the 15th of Adar.) which this year falls on the 21st of March. The story of Purim is recounted in the Book of Esther, found in the Hebrew Bible. Set in Persia roughly 2,300 years ago, the story tells of how a series of events came together to save the Jewish people from genocide....   [tags: essays research papers]

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“Seeing Through the Bell Jar: Distorted Female Identity in Cold War America

- The essay “Seeing Through the Bell Jar: Distorted Female Identity in Cold War America” by Rosi Smith, argues that the book, “The Bell Jar”, by Sylvia Plath is about women in 1950s America who struggled to find their personal identities outside what was defined by the Cold War Ideology of the role of women in the household. According to Smith, the character Esther Greenwood’s inability to integrate her identity is because of the state of the political environment and time frame in which the book is written....   [tags: Literature]

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Biology: Hydrolysis of Lipids Using an Enzyme Called ‘Lipase’

- Hydrolysis of Lipids Using an Enzyme Called ‘Lipase’ Research and Rationale Enzymes Enzymes are made up of proteins that are available in every cell of a living plant and animal [9] .Enzymes are very important for biochemical reactions. They act as catalysts and speed up biochemical reactions by using ‘an alternative reaction pathway of lower activation energy’ [5].Enzymes either starts a chemical reaction or allows it to occur faster [9]. Enzymes do not experience enduring changes therefore; remain unchanged at the end of the reaction [9]....   [tags: triglycerides, energy, molecule]

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The Effects of Hurricanes in Bananas Plantation

- After receiving alarming news from the Cavendish Distilling Company or CDC, about their delicious Banana Elixir. It seems after Hurricane Floyd they lost the majority of their bananas’ and are now in need of an alternative source for a banana flavoring, to avoid bankruptcy. Luckily for the CDC, there is a known way to get the chemical that can be used in place of the oil from a banana. That chemical in this experiment will be known as isopentyl acetate. Isopentyl acetate is an Ester, an Esters are usually created from reacting a carboxylic acid with an alcohol, along this an acid catalyst....   [tags: Isopentyl acetate, banana elixir, destillation]

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The Adverse Effects of Consuming Artificial Sweetners

- Today a percentage of the population is addicted to sugar and over the years sugar has been given a bad reputation that if you consume too much you will have a higher risk of developing some type of disease. Well in attempt to live a healthy life, people today are relying on artificial sweeteners. With this notion, the question still today is whether or not artificial sweeteners are healthier then just consuming regular table sugar. This paper will discuss the adverse affects of consuming artificial sweeteners and the effects they have on a person’s body....   [tags: saccharin, aspartame, cancerogene]

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The Devil's Arithmetic by Jane Yolen

- The Devil’s Arithmetic Independent Reading Response Questions, Chapters 6-9: 1) Hannah reveals that her best friend is Rosemary, a Catholic girl, and states, “As if that matters (p. 46).” As Chaya, her new friends are in shock upon hearing this. Ester states, “My father will not even let me talk to a goy (p. 47).” Why will Ester’s father not allow this. Why is Hannah not bothered by it. Use text evidence to support your response. Answer: Esther states, “My father will not even let me talk to a goy.” Her father does not want Esther to be friend with a goy, because he thinks that the goy will influence Esther, negatively....   [tags: independent reading response questions]

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My Science Project : Shooting Stars

- For my science project I am presenting objects that are very rare and peculiar in space like sun spots, shooting stars, the Himiko Cloud, Jupiter eye and the Sagittarius B2. These are all things that are only found in one spot in space and some of these topics don’t get much recognition. Also all of these topics have very fascinating history behind them like for example who found them and how they were discovered. Therefore, I am bringing light to these topics and write about all of the interesting facts they have to offer in the pages below....   [tags: Sun, Star, Earth, Milky Way]

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The Treatment Of Pain And Fever

- ... Other than being a reactant, acetic anhydride performs as the solvent for the reaction. Water is added at the end of the reaction to remove the excess acetic anhydride. Chemical equation: C7H6O3 + C4H6O3 (H_2 SO_4 ) ⃗ C9H8O4 + C2H4O2 The crude aspirin is collected by vacuum filtration and upon doing the melting point determination of the crude aspirin, it is recrystallized. The purified aspirin that is, obtained by the recrystallization of the crude aspirin is measured by melting point determination....   [tags: Aspirin, Salicylic acid, Sulfuric acid]

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Biodiesel Production Using Supercritical Methanol

- A major part of all the energy produced worldwide comes from fossil fuel sources. These sources are limited and are depleting at a fast pace. The depletion of these fossil sources has led to the search of alternative fuels from renewable sources like plant biomass. Vegetable oil is one such renewable source. Vegetable oil has gained much attention in recent years since it has many environmental benefits and it can be obtained from renewable sources. The energy from vegetable oil can be tapped by converting it to biodiesel....   [tags: fossil fuels, vegetable oil, biodiesel]

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Carbohydrates, Fat, and Protein

- Animals and plants each require their own unique form of carbohydrates, fats, and protein to function. Humans have many chemical compounds found in the body, each classified as different macromolecules. Macromolecules include fats, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleotides. Each performing their own unique function in the human body. Carbohydrates, or carbs, are used to spare the use of protein in the body and use it as energy. Carbs can be found in many foods, such as grains, fruits and milk products....   [tags: Humans, Chemical Compunds, Human Sciences]

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Esther in the Bible

- The book of Esther tells the faithfulness of one woman and her uncle. It is only one of two books that contain the heroism and bravery of a woman heroine. The story of Esther accomplishes two profound things, the first: “To demonstrate God’s providential care of his people, even those outside the land of Israel, and 2) to commend the observance of the feast of Purim by relating how it originated” (Breneman 289).Unlike the rest of the Bible the story of Esther does not directly state or talk about God, but instead shows God’s plans for all of our lives and how in all frightening moments of life, He remains faithful to those who trust and have faith in Him....   [tags: God's Plan, Faith in God, Bible, God]

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Importance of Costumes in As You Like It, Twelfth Night, and Henry IV, Part One

- Importance of Costumes in As You Like It, Twelfth Night, and Henry IV, Part One The Jewish holiday Purim celebrates the rescue of the ancient Jews of Persia from certain destruction at the hands of Haman. The fair queen Ester tricks the villain, and Haman betrays himself before the king. Each year the story is read aloud amidst great celebration. The children, and even the adults, dress up as their favorite character in the story. Each time Haman’s name is uttered, everyone makes as much noise as they can to blot out his evil name....   [tags: As You Like It]

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The Structure of Nucleic Acid Chains

- The Structure of Nucleic Acid Chains Nucleotides are joined together in DNA and RNA by phosphate ester bonds between the phosphate component of one nucleotide and the sugar component of the next nucleotide. An ester bond is a bond which occurs between a Carbon atom and an Oxygen atom. More and more nucleotides can be added on by the same process of forming ester bonds until an immense chain is formed. But no matter how long a polynucleotide chain is, one end of the nucleic acid molecule always has a free -OH group on the sugar at the Carbon known as C3' (called the 3' end) and the other end of the molecule always has a phosphoric acid group at C5' (the 5' end)....   [tags: Papers]

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Structure and Biological Significance of Lipids

- Structure and Biological Significance of Lipids Lipids are made up of a wide variety of molecules, but they all contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, with a much higher percentage of carbon and hydrogen molecules than oxygen. There are three kinds of lipids in living organisms: triglycerides, phospholipids and steroids (hormones). Triglycerides are made up of a glycerol molecule, with three fatty acid chains attached by ester linkages. Glycerol is an alcohol containing 3 carbon atoms....   [tags: Papers]

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Dietary Factors in Preventing Heart Disease

- Dietary Factors in Preventing Heart Disease As coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death in the UK, more attention should be paid to preventing the disease. Many patients suffering from heart disease realise that it was mainly caused by their diet. Research has shown that elevated levels of LDL cholesterol are associated with increased risk of heart disease. “ Studies indicate that for every 1% elevation in the bad cholesterol there is a 2% increase in risk of heart disease” (A leaflet on heart disease.) Continually it has been proved that a low-fat, high fibre diet rich in unrefined complex carbohydrates helps lower the risk of heart disease and i...   [tags: Papers]

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Nature of a Diamond

- The unique nature of diamond is heavily dependent upon its composition, crystal structure, and mechanical, thermal, and electromagnetic properties.1 Of those dependencies, composition exacts the most influence over the characteristics. Crystal structure is the repeating pattern of diamond’s composition, and each of the properties are the result of molecular interaction which is determined by composition. Therefore, composition is paramount in the determination of the qualities of diamond. Before its discovery, adamantane was known as decaterpene, the name applied by Decker to his tricyclic hydrocarbon....   [tags: essays research papers]

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Book Summary

- Addy is a nine year old girl who lives with her Momma, Pappa, Sam her 15 year old brother and her one year old sister Ester. Addy and her family are slaves who work for Master Stevens. One night on a summer night sleep Addy heard her parents talking about running away. Pappa wanted Addy to be free. He is sick and tired of seeing his children work so hard. They were talking about how they have to take a chance. Pappa did not want to wait till the war was over. He wanted to be free, and to be able to run free and feel freedom....   [tags: Book Review Summary]

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The Element Lanthanum

- Introduction Lanthanum (La) is a member of the rare earth elements (REEs), which consist of a group of 15 trivalent metallic elements with similar properties. Lanthanum is mostly dangerous in the working environment, due to the fact that damps and gasses can be inhaled with air. This can cause lung embolism, especially during long-term exposure. Lanthanum can also cause cancer with humans, as it enlarges the chances of lung cancer when it is inhaled. Finally, it can be a threat to the liver when it accumulates in the human body....   [tags: metals, detection, toxic]

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Characterization of Three Piperine Analogs of Dipeptidyl Boronic Acid

- In the present study three piperine analogs of dipeptidyl boronic acid (1 to 3) were synthesized. Structures of the synthesized compounds were characterized by spectral studies. All the compounds were screened for their antineoplastic activity against three cancer cell lines and antimicrobial activity against seven bacterial and five fungal species. In vitro results showed that most of the compounds displayed moderate to good inhibitory activitiy on the tested cancer cell lines, among them compound 1 showed excelent antitumor activity where as Compound 3 was found to be potent antimicrobial agent against Asperigillus fumigates at a concentration of 62 µg/mL than other tested compounds and t...   [tags: antineoplastic, drug, anticancer]

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Chemistry and Technology in Biodiesel

- ... The diesel engine was originally intended to run on bio-fuel such as vegetable oil, rather than the petroleum-based diesel fuels mainly used today. Therefore society did not know what it was like to run petroleum-based diesel fuel before biodiesel was invented. Biodiesel gives a cleaner diesel fuel to run in vehicles. It does not give off the bad pollutions like a petroleum-based diesel fuel when burned. Therefore it is affecting society in a positive way, by not polluting the air. The resources to make biodiesel are organic, it is a renewable resource so, practically the resources will never run out to make the fuel so resources do not affect the fuel from being made....   [tags: cleaner fuels for internal combustion engines]

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The Structure of Lipid A

- Lipid A is considered as the hydrophobic lipid moiety of the LPS molecule. Lipid A is basically phosphorylated glucosamine disaccharide with many fatty acids attached to it. This portion of the LPS is responsible for its endotoxic activity (Rietschel et al., 1982). Lipid A is the agent capable of inducing various endotoxic reactions such as fever, Shwartzman reaction, activation of immune cells, lethal toxicity etc (Galanos et al 1985; Rietschel et al, 1987). Lipid A is embedded in the lipid bilayer of outer membrane and is necessary for a functional membrane barrier function (Wyckoff et al., 1998)....   [tags: endotoxicity, LPS, hydrophobic]

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The Two-Faced Detergent

- Whether soil particles are attached to carpet fibers, wood floors or restroom sinks, they need to be removed. But how is this done. Most of us wipe or scrub a dirty surface with soap and water without a second thought about how they actually work to remove soil. The process of removing dirt begins at the molecular level. In order to understand how soap works, we must first acknowledge what soap actually does. By definition, soap is a mixture of sodium or potassium salts and long chain organic acids....   [tags: informative essay]

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Research Paper: The research on using a Tethered Agonist Approach to Map the Structure of the Receptor

- The tethered agonist approach to mapping ion channel proteins – toward a structural model for the agonist binding site of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Research by Lintong Li, Wenge Zhong, Niki Zacharias, Caroline Gibbs, Henry A Lester, Dennis A. Dougherty. Condensation of the Research Purpose of the Study: The purpose of the study was to develop a structural model for the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and use newer techniques to more easily understand the structure and function of membrane proteins....   [tags: essays research papers]

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Inhibition of Nitric Oxide Synthase Impairs a Distinct Form of Long-Term Memory in the Honeybee

- Introduction Nitric oxide (NO), which has demonstrated plasticity regarding processes of learning and memory, has revealed its specific function in memory formation for the honeybee. The predominant amount of NO synthase (NOS) activity has been shown to participate in the processing of olfactory information of a honeybee. A honeybee's antenna (*- Application of appetitive stimuli to the antennae of honeybees elicits extension of the proboscis (PER)) lobes are the primary centers of olfactory processing that exhibit highest NOS activity, which takes place in the brain....   [tags: Biology Apis mellifera honey bee]

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Caddie - Australian Movie Review

- The movie Caddie stars Helen Morse as ‘Caddie’ Marsh, a young woman in the depression, Jackie Weaver, as Caddie’s friend Leslie, Jack Thompson as Ted, and Takis Emmanuel as Peter. Caddie is set in the times of the Australian depression and was the first remotely successful Australian feature film. It follows the story of a spirited woman and her experiences over seven life-shaping years of her life. Through her eyes we see the effect of the depression on the average Australians of the time. The movie tells the story of a young Sydney woman during the years 1925 to 1932 in which time she changes from a young suburban 25 year old matron and mother to a free-wheeling woman of 32....   [tags: essays research papers]

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Suicide of Vietnam Veterans

- Suicide of Vietnam Veterans The deaths that were experienced in Vietnam due to Agent Orange and other jungle diseases have become well known by the general public. However, it is suicide that has resulted in the deaths of over 150,000 Vietnam soldiers during and after the war. An enormous amount of suicides resulted from what most people call “protecting our country”. The Vietnam War brought more than fifty-eight thousand deaths and is to some one of the darkest battles in United States history....   [tags: Vietnam War Essays]

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Effect of monomer modification on the physico-chemical properties, degradation and in vitro biocompatibility of polyester bioelastomers

- A careful selection of monomers for biomaterial syntheses is essential for determining and controlling the functionality and biocompatibility of the biomaterials to be produced. Synthetic polyester elastomers based on molecules that are endogenous to the human metabolism have been designed [1]. In earlier studies, several investigators have reported elastic polyesters based on citric acid, in particular polyoctanediol citrate (POC) [2], poly(alkenylene maleate citrate) [3], poly(xylitol-co-citrate) [4] and poly(mannitol citric dicarboxylate) [5]....   [tags: Copolyesters, synthesized, Research]

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My Experience With A Registered Nurse ( Bsn ) At The Age Of 22

- My journey continues, to serve, to educate, to lead, to support, and above all to recognise when more expertise is needed to ensure the optimum patient outcome. 2008 remains very symbolic for me, since it was the year i started serving as a Registered Nurse (BSN) at the age of 22. Each day seemed far more interesting than the previous one, as i used the different medical and scientific theories to provide the best care for my patients. I looked forward to discussing my patients conditions with the Doctors, i never shied away from doing my own research and asking questions regarding conditions and care plans....   [tags: Nursing, Nurse, Catheter, Florence Nightingale]

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Analysis of Kinetic Rate Constant and Oxygen-Inhibition-Effect in Acrylate/Epoxide Hybrid Systems Photopolymerization

- I. Introduction Photopolymerization is a process that uses light instead of thermal energy to initiate the reaction that converts monomer to polymer. This process has led to increased productivity, improved physical properties and product performance, new capabilities for users, cost effectiveness, and environmental friendliness when compared with thermal processes. Ultra-violet (UV) formulated product usage has experienced growth for 35 consecutive years starting from 5,000 metric tons in 1970 to 95,000 metric tons in 2005....   [tags: Chemistry ]

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Study Comparing the Efficacy of Triphala Mouthwash with Chlorhexidine on Periodontal Disease

- Objectives: Triphala is the combination of three medicinal plants, extensively used in ayurveda since ancient time. Triphala mouthwash is used in the treatment of periodontal diseases because of its antimicrobial and antioxidant property. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of Triphala mouthwash with 0.2% chlorhexidine in hospitalized periodontal disease patients. Materials and method: In this double blind randomized, multicentric clinical trial, 120 patients were equally distributed in three groups....   [tags: ayurvedic, plaque, dental]

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Class Struggle Explored in House of the Spirits and Uncle Vanya

- The House of the Spirits and Uncle Vanya are two famous international literary works written within a century of each other. Despite the differences in time periods of which the two works were written, they both seem to convey the literary theme of class struggle between the poor lower class and the rich upper class elites. Both elaborate on the feelings of resentment and regret as a result of the hardships of life around them as demonstrated through hidden historical connections, literary devices such as parables and themes, and love reminiscences....   [tags: institution of classes, lower class, upper class]

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Confusion on What to Eat in Food Rules by Michael Pollan

- Food Rules In Food Rules, Michael Pollan explains how a lot of people are confused on what to eat. “Eat food. Not too much. Mostly plants” so he teaches us on what to eat. He tells us about how western diets are high in processed food, high in sugar and high in salt. In addition, diabetes type 2 , cancer, cardiovascular disease and obesity are the cause of so called western disease . Another type of diet that Michael says do not cause is the traditional diet because its natural food. It says averting western diets helps improve health....   [tags: diet, ingredients, product]

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Methyl Cinnamate6 And Its Effect On The Value Of The Yield

- Additionally, there might existed other impurities that elevated the value of the yield. In figure 3, the expected multiplets for the two different sets of aromatic hydrogens in ethyl cinnamate6 were not depicted. Furthermore, the integrations did not match with the structure of ethyl cinnamate and the E/Z isomer ratio could not be identified from them. Therefore, considering the abnormal large peak at 7.42 ppm, it was possible that in the product there still existed benzaldehyde that was not eluted from the column, and with its own aromatic ring, interfering with the 1H NMR measurement of the ethyl cinnamate....   [tags: Wittig reaction, Aldehyde, NMR spectroscopy]

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Aspirin : An Organic Compound Created Through The Process Of Esterification

- Introduction Aspirin is an organic compound created through the process of esterification. In this reaction, an ester is formed from an alcohol and a carboxylic acid combined with an acid catalyst (Timberlake). Aspirin, or acetylsalicylic acid, is made from the reaction of salicylic acid and acetic anhydride, with a byproduct of acetic acid also. Various techniques have historically been used to produce aspirin. Filtration is the process of removing any excess water from the crystals by vacuuming or suctioning it out....   [tags: Aspirin, Acetic acid, Carboxylic acid]

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Synthesis Of Multicomponent Reactions Using Nanomagnetic Catalyst Under Solvent Free Condition

- 1. Nanomagnetic-supported sulfonic acid is found to be a powerful and reusable heterogeneous catalyst for the efficient synthesis of Pyrimidinones. In this study we use various ketones such as acetophenone and cyclopentanone in one-pot synthesis of Pyrimidinones. Our objective is to improve conditions for the synthesis of multicomponent reactions using nanomagnetic catalyst under solvent free condition. A Number of excellent and significant results have been developed that lead our perspective understanding of the effect of the magnetic nanoparticles when they are used as catalysts....   [tags: Chemistry, Chemical reaction, Catalysis]

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How Does A Person View The Significance And Power Of Knowledge?

- ... Bradbury said, “Sometimes writers write about a world that does not yet exist. Because it’s good to look forward, not back. Because we need to illuminate a path we hope or we fear humanity will take. Because the world of the future seems more enticing or more interesting than the world of today. Because we need to warn you. To encourage. To examine. To Imagine.”(Bradbury, xi). In this futuristic version of our world books are banned by the government in an attempt to keep the minds of the people under control....   [tags: Fahrenheit 451, Dystopia, Ray Bradbury]

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How Does A Person View The Significance And Power Of Knowledge?

- ... Bradbury said, “Sometimes writers write about a world that does not yet exist. Because it’s good to look forward, not back. Because we need to illuminate a path we hope or we fear humanity will take. Because the world of the future seems more enticing or more interesting than the world of today. Because we need to warn you. To encourage. To examine. To Imagine.”(Bradbury, xi). In this futuristic version of our world books are banned by the government in an attempt to keep the minds of the people under control....   [tags: Fahrenheit 451, Dystopia, Ray Bradbury]

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Endophytic Microorganisms that Redise on the Tissues of Living Plants

- Two compounds from cultivation of the endophytic fungus Penicillium sp of leaves of kunyit putih (Curcuma zedoaria (Berg) Roscoe ) have been isolated. The endophytic fungus was cultivated on 5 L of Potatos Dextose Broth (PDB) medium at room temperature (no shaking) for 3 weeks. The cultures were then extracted with ethyl acetate to afford 3.0 g of residue after removal of the solvent under reduced pressure. The extract was separated and purified by silica gel column chromatography (CC) and afforded two pure compounds as yellow oil (compound 1) and yellow crystal ( compound 2)....   [tags: cultivation, endophytic fungus, penicillium]

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First and Second Generation Biomass Materials for Production of Biofuels

- Fossil fuels have negatively impacted the environment causing irreversible changes. There are three fossil fuels in the world today. They are: natural gas and coal, as well as the more familiar fuels refined from crude oil including gasoline, diesel, and fuel oils. In the United States, in previous years there has been a dependence on these fuels for many purposes. When fossil fuels are burned, a chemical reaction occurs called combustion. This reaction is the cause of a major source of pollution in the environment....   [tags: tending topics in the energy world]

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Night Captures The Occurrences That Were Faced By Elie Wiesel

- Nights come so often. However, the darkest of nights are the nights that engrave themselves into our subconscious. No matter how hard you try to forget, it is impossible. The Holocaust, as it is remembered, was yet another monstrous aspect of the Second World War. Adolf Hitler conducted the mass genocide of eleven million people, six million of them being Jewish. The Holocaust lasted from January of 1933 and continued until May of 1945. The novel Night captures the occurrences that were faced by author Elie Wiesel, a Holocaust survivor during his time at Auschwitz....   [tags: Elie Wiesel, Auschwitz concentration camp]

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English Is The Formal Language For American Education System

- Oxford College and many other American institutions are culturally diverse. English is the formal language for American education system. At the same time, English is the lingua franca, hence widely spoken across the globe. Nevertheless, English has hundreds of dialects and thousands of accents which sometimes make communication between two English speakers ineffective. Non-native English-speaking students at Oxford College and many other American learning institutions have poor learning experience....   [tags: English language, Education, Linguistics]

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Isolation and Characterization of SDS-degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa sp

- Isolation and Characterization of SDS-degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa sp. Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University Putra Malaysia 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia Abstract: Surfactants are synthetic organic chemicals that are formulated to have cleansing or solubilisation properties. With the development of the industrial economy and increase in population density, surfactants have become one of the most widely disseminated xenobiotics to enter the aquatic environment, creating a serious environmental problem....   [tags: Biochemistry]

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The Evolution of Life Expectancy and C.R. Bard

- According to the Central Intelligence Office of the United States of America, in 2010 world life expectancy at birth was 67.2 years. This number is more than double that of years of life expectancy at birth in the early 20th century, which was reported as 31 years. This increase in life expectancy is a direct outcome of acceleration in medical advancements and breakthroughs during the early and late 20th century. A greater understanding of disease diagnosis, treatment, and cure has been a result of often intersecting advancements in biology, chemistry, microbiology, physiology, pharmacology, and medical technology....   [tags: modern medicine, medical technology, medical distr]

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Jonathan Edwards on the Doctrine of Original Sin

- Biographical Information JONATHAN EDWARDS was born to the Reverend Timothy Edwards and his wife Ester, October 5, 1703. He was the fifth of eleven born to the Reverend; who made their home in East Windsor, Connecticut. Being from an evangelical Puritan household, he was also expected to study and learn the Bible as well as the strict tenants of Calvinism. The debates over his Reformed Calvinist faith and the “liberal” movements captivated his thoughts and his pen. He considered Anglican Arminianism and Deism to be heresy that stood in direct opposition to his Reformed Puritan upbringing....   [tags: religious philosophy]

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Chemical Properties Of Activated Carbon On Niobium Oxide

- We synthesized catalysts by loading phosphoric acid and activated carbon on niobium oxide by the co-impregnation method. The loading of activated carbon (AC) and phosphoric acid was calculated based on the niobium oxide weight. The amount of AC, phosphoric acid, and niobium oxide was fixed at 3, 10, and 20 wt%, respectively. The catalyst with 3 wt% AC and 10 wt% phosphoric acid was found to be optimum. The reactor was maintained at 300 °C using an electronic furnace. 10 wt% glycerol solution was fed to the reactor by the WHSV 17.6 g/g·cat....   [tags: Nitrogen, Carbon dioxide, Adsorption, Hydrogen]

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Saint Bridit and African American Women Saints

- One of my class mates traveles to Ireland every year. My class mate stated each time she visits Ireland that she gets a greater understanding of women in the early days. We both come from a baptist, penecostal and apstolic background, I would like to compare the roles of Saint Bridit and women in the church, the only black women preachers preached about in the baptist church was harriet tuckman. The other women talked about in church was Mary the mother of Jesus Christ. However Mary the mother of Jesus did increase my faith, however I know it was much knowledge to be gained concerning women....   [tags: travel, saints, African Americans,]

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Population Reduction: The Method for Economic Growth?

- Until recently, the term “population growth” has always been regarded in a positive manner; still many people believe that a growing human population results in a growing economy. While many people debate whether a reduction in our total numbers is necessary, others debate what the effects would be. Not only does our population affect the economy, but also our environment, education, quality of life, and everything around us depends on how we react to this growing problem. Our population is growing and we must decide how we will react and what effects our actions will have....   [tags: Tax Rate, Ponzi Schemes]

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2073 words | (5.9 pages) | Preview

Skin Deep: The Face of Women's Makeup

- Skin Deep: The Face of Women’s Makeup Representative of womanhood, femininity and sexuality, it has been both celebrated and vulgarized. Face makeup has long played a role in beauty and women’s endless pursuit of it, but is there a significance in painting our faces that is more than just skin deep. What does makeup symbolize and how does it influence society’s standard of beauty. Women use makeup to highlight feminine features and conceal flaws, but are these also subliminal advertisements....   [tags: beauty, revlon, cosmetics]

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1199 words | (3.4 pages) | Preview

Antimicrobial and Other Therapeutic Properties of Spices

- Spices are natural compounds derived from different parts of a plant which are commonly used as flavoring, aroma and preservatives. The essential oil content and oleoresins present in the spices have given them the flavoring and aroma. In addition, the essential oil can also act as a natural preservative in foods (Ceylan and Fung, 2004). Other than flavoring, aroma and preservatives, spices have many therapeutic properties such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, chemopreventive and antifungal. The antimicrobial properties of spices have led to the development of plant-origin antibiotics so as to overcome the antibiotic resistant problems....   [tags: plants, antibiotic resistants]

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