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Argument Vs. Argument : Argument

- At the heart of philosophy is philosophical argument. Arguments are different from assertions. Assertions are simply stated; arguments always involve giving reasons. An argument is a reasoned inference from one set of claims – the premises – to another claim – the conclusion. The premises provide reasons to believe that the conclusion is true. If the premises are true, the conclusion is more likely to be true. Arguments seek to ‘preserve truth’ – true premises will lead to a true conclusion. It is worth knowing a little bit more about arguments straightaway....   [tags: Logic, Inductive reasoning, Argument]

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The Argument For The Ontological Argument

- For many, the idea of existence as a predicate causes issues for the ontological argument. In the argument Anselm states that God is a being, than which nothing greater can be conceived, and using logic he comes to the conclusion that God must exist by definition. This can be seen as strength to the argument as if it is a valid deduction it proves God’s existence to an atheist as well as a believer. However, Kant counters this argument by saying that existence could not be a predicate of anything....   [tags: Ontology, Ontological argument, Existence]

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St. Anselm 's Argument On The Ontological Argument

- Student #: 1001725779 TA: Michel S. Tutorial: 10am St. Anselm discovers the ontological argument and he presents an argument that supports Gods existence. In this essay, I will consider the main argument that Anselm states, and list explanations that results in the uncertainty of God’s existence. This essay will critique Anslems argument by using Gaunilo idea of the perfect island and include a priori and a posteriori to show the problematic areas of Anslems argument. We begin with the explanation of Anslems argument....   [tags: Existence, Ontology, Cosmological argument]

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An Atheist Article, The Cosmological Argument, And The Teleological Argument

- ... “There is no natural reason, given in terms of laws of nature, why the objects of our universe exist” (Evans 2009). The cosmological argument, in McCloskey’s terms, addresses the creation of the universe (McCloskey 1968). Therefore, something had to make the universe. The infinite regression of causes means that there was no initial cause, which means there was no cause of existence. There had to have been an uncaused cause. “Aquinas, Leibniz, Clarke, and Taylor have defended non-temporal versions....   [tags: God, Theology, Teleological argument]

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Argument And Validity Of Validity And Soundness

- ... V & ~V C → C T F F T T T T F F T T T T F F F T F T F F F T F F F T T T T F F T T T T F F T F T F F F T F T F The statements V&~&A and C→C are examples of a contradiction and tautology. There are two conditions a statement must meet to be valid. The first is that all premises must be true and secondly the statements conclusion must be false. A contradiction statement is false in every connotation making it logically false. Within the truth table there happens to be contradictions. For V&~V the conclusions are false in every statement....   [tags: Logic, Argument, Validity, Soundness]

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An Argument for the Smoking Ban

- Have you ever been in a restaurant eating your favorite food, then just when you are about to take a bite, you inhale a cloud of smoke coming from the nearby smoking section. This has been a complaint from many non-smoking restaurant goers. While it is true that smoking cigarettes and breathing them in causes many health problems, is it fair to of take the freedom those Americans who want to smoke and enjoy their meal. This topic is very debatable and in many cases has reached compromises, but I would stand by the argument that smoking should be banned from all public areas because the unfiltered smoke is getting into the lungs of bystanders who do not smoke, and causing some major...   [tags: argumentative, persuasive, argument]

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Logical Fallacies Of An Argument

- ... Just because the majority of people voted for the brown motorcycle does not means they will win. People will not check if the green bike even runs faster than the brown vehicle because of the bandwogan fallacy. Another example is about how everyone buys iPhone even though iPhone is over prices and other phones offer better hardware. People only buy it because of the name brand. My friend Linda bought an iPhone and I asked her why she bought it. She said everybody is using an iPhone that’s why she bought one....   [tags: Fallacy, Argument, Logical fallacies]

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Argument Against Abortion And Abortion

- In this paper I will be arguing in favor of Judith Jarvis Thomson view point on abortion. I am defending the use abortion and only in the first trimester. I will consider Don Marquis objections of the practice but ultimately side with Thomson. The standard argument against abortion claims that the fetus is a person and therefore has a right to life. Thomson shows why this standard argument against abortion is a somewhat inadequate account of the morality of abortion. (1) The fetus is a person (or moral equivalent) (2) It is wrong to kill persons (C) It is wrong to have an abortion....   [tags: Abortion, Morality, Pregnancy, Argument]

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An Ethical Argument Against Abortion

- Each day throughout our world, medical professionals suction thousands of babies from their mothers’ wombs through a procedure called abortion. The law protects and provides consent to both the mother and the medical professionals for these procedures. However, the babies seemingly have no right to protection or life themselves because of the argument regarding when a fetus is determined be human and have life. Pro-life author, Sarah Terzo, in a LifeSiteNews.com article, relays the following testimony supporting this from a medical student upon witnessing his first abortion, “Rejected by their mothers and regarded as medical waste by their killers, society allows these babies to die silently...   [tags: Argument Against Abortion]

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Aristotle's Argument of the Polis

- In what follows, I shall consider Aristotle's’ argument of the polis, or the city-state, as presented in his Politics I.2, and expound on the philosophical implications of this particular thesis; namely, a thesis which claims that the city-state exists by nature, and correspondingly, that a human being is ‘by nature a political animal’. Along the way, I shall present two objections leveled against each claim. The first pertains to the invalidity of the argument on ends; specifically, I shall protest that when a thing’s process of coming to be is completed, even if we regard this as an end, this does not necessarily confer that such an end is a natural end, for artificial processes too, like...   [tags: argument analysis, philosophy]

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The Ontological Argument For The Existence Of God

- ... But how does one quantify greatness. If one assumes God is the most powerful, most knowledgeable and most benevolent being in existence, that would imply there exists some sort of limit for power, knowledge and goodness, and that God is the only being to achieve said limit. But is there a limit to power, knowledge or goodness. If one compares this to mathematics, God could be comparable with infinity; the greatest conceivable number. However, the value of infinity is undefined as it is not considered a "real number"; when any number approaches infinity, it does not approach a certain value but rather continues to increase in value without ever stopping....   [tags: Ontology, Ontological argument, Existence, God]

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Exploring the Ontological Argument

- Exploring the Ontological Argument For nearly a thousand years, the ontological argument has captured the attention of philosophers. The ontological argument was revolutionary in its sequence from thought to reality. It was an argument that did not require any corresponding experiment in reality; it functioned without the necessity of empirical data. Despite flaws and problems found in some ontological arguments and the objections raised to those arguments, ontological arguments still provide a phenomenal vehicle for ontological discussion through St....   [tags: phylosophy, Anselm's argument]

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The History of the Cosmological Argument for the Existence of God

- Early elements of the Cosmological Argument were developed by the world renowned philosophers Plato and Aristotle between the years 400 and 200 BC (Boeree). Medieval philosopher Saint Thomas Aquinas expanded upon their ideas in the late 13th Century when he wrote, “The Five Ways.” Since then the Cosmological Argument has become one of the most widely accepted and criticized arguments for the existence of God. My objective in this paper is to explain why the Cosmological Argument is a reasonable argument for the existence of God, the importance of understanding that it is an inductive a posteriori argument, and defend my position against common opposing arguments....   [tags: Cosmological Argument, religion]

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The Argument from Design, by William Paley

- During the 1800th century, William Paley, an English philosopher of religion and ethics, wrote the essay The Argument from Design. In The Argument from Design, Paley tries to prove the existence of a supreme being through the development of a special kind of argument known as the teleological argument. The teleological argument is argument by analogy, an argument based on the similarities between two different subjects. This essay purposefully attempts to break down Paley’s argument and does so in the following manner: firstly, Paley’s basis for the teleological argument is introduced; secondly, Paley’s argument is derived and analyzed; thirdly, the connection between Paley’s argument and th...   [tags: Teleological Argument, Supreme Being]

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Employee Loyalty Argument By Ronald Duska

- For this essay, I will evaluate the Employee Loyalty Argument derived from ‘Whistleblowing and Employee Loyalty’ by Ronald Duska. I will argue that this Employee Loyalty Argument is deductively valid but is not deductively sound because premise 2 is false. I will justify my claims that premise 2 is false by arguing about how it is rational for employees to expect their companies to recognize and fulfill a duty of loyalty to their employees if the employees also have a duty of loyalty to the companies that employ them....   [tags: Argument, Logic, Validity, Employment]

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Thomas Aquinas ' Uncaused Cause Argument

- Thomas Aquinas’ “Uncaused Cause” argument starts with a premise stating the world has events which cause other events to happen. Because of this series of causes, nothing can exist before itself or else the chain of causes would go in a circle. For example, “if a tree caused a seed which caused an apple which caused event x to cause event y which eventually causes the seed to cause the apple, ultimately the apple would have caused itself to exist since it existed before it existed” (“Uncaused Cause” Atkins, Philip)....   [tags: Logic, Argument, A priori and a posteriori]

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Anselm's Ontological Argument

- In Chapter 2 of Anselm's Proslogian, Anselm offers what was later to be characterized as his Ontological Argument, which is an argument for God's existence he felt was so strong that even a fool as is said in Psalms 14:1- "who has said in his heart, 'There is no God'". Anselm's argument is as follows : 1. God is 'that which nothing greater can be conceived'. 2. If someone understands a thing, than that thing exists in someone's understanding. 3. If someone understands 'that which nothing greater can be conceived', then 'that which nothing greater can be conceived' exists in someone's understanding....   [tags: plantiga's argument, god]

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The Ontological Argument As A Proof For The Existence Of God

- ... By his nature God has to be this ‘maximally great’ being, it is the clear understanding we all have of God. Even Freud, who vehemently denied God, understood that we have a ‘God-shaped hole’ which we need to fill. This ‘hole’ is, by definition, a longing for a being beyond our entire understanding that exemplifies a maximally great (plantinga) ultimately perfect (Descartes) ‘thing’ of which we cannot conceive anything greater (Anselm). Plantinga’s reasoning, therefore is to take our natural desire and understanding for God and move into an area of logical certainty whereby God must exist....   [tags: Ontology, Ontological argument, Logic, God]

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The Argument for Celibacy

- The Argument for Celibacy   How could someone explain America’s loosening view of sexual intercourse over recent decades. Have our moral standards changed so much that they now accept or even encourage frequent sex. Is it just a method of rebellion as people attempt to fight conservative societal views. Perhaps we just wish to fight those who instill inhibitive ideas on us, and our forms of freedom – in this case, that of our bodies. Has American media’s desire for revenue and profit caused an increased sway towards what was previously deemed inappropriate....   [tags: Argumentative Persuasive Argument Essays]

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Against The Golden Rule Argument Against Abortion

- ... He gives the example that we may wish people shower us with lavish gifts, and we might have the opportunity to do so as well, however, that does not mean that either should have to do so. Later on Boonin-Vail gives the example of a child’s whose mother dies during labor. Although that child might be happy and wished to be alive. It would not be surprising for this very child to think their mother should have had a choice and for them to be unhappy with their mother’s death. This concludes that Hare’s argument is objectionable and unstable In Gensler’s example Boonin-Vail acknowledges that it is a stronger, more straightforward argument however undeniably there are still objections....   [tags: Logic, Argument, Pregnancy]

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The Teleological Argument : The Logic Of Science And Man Of God

- ... They are not the result of chance or natural law or the combination of both, since the data are contingent, complex and specified. 3. Therefore, (a) the data are the result of a Designer. 4. Therefore, (b) there is a Designer.1 By determining the characteristics of something that has been designed and then turning those characteristics onto our very existence, the Teleological Argument hopes to confirm the existence of a Designer. The three criteria listed in the argument are contingency, complexity, and specificity....   [tags: Universe, Nature, Teleological argument]

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Using Crisis as a Tool for Argument

- 1) A synopsis of the argument crisis What are we going to do. It is a main topic of the chapter. The book shows us a few essays to relate to crisis. That is about the nature of crisis or college education or the relationship between two countries. They introduced to us why we have to use crisis for the argument, because it is one way to learn how to develop argument. When we get in the crisis situation, we can illustrate many different sides, and one of them will be most persuasive argument leads the direction of the argument....   [tags: Persuasion Argument]

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Anselm 's Ontological Argument For The Existence Of God

- In this paper I will argue that Anselm 's ontological argument for the existence of God is so adequate for establishing the necessary existence of the greatest Conceivable Being. In order to accomplish this, I will argue that Anselm 's premises are sound, and that his conclusion rightfully follows his premises. I will support Anselm 's argument by representing that objections to Anselm 's argument are unsuccessful. My focus will be on Gaunilo 's objection to Anselm 's argument. Basically, Gauinilo 's objection is that Anselm 's argument can be transformed to prove the existence of any idea just by using the definition that the concept is bigger than all different concepts which can be concei...   [tags: Ontology, Ontological argument, Existence, Mind]

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Moral Argument for Existence of God

- All moral arguments for the existence of God work on the principle that we all have a shared sense of morality. Despite cultural differences, broadly speaking, humans worldwide have a vague idea of what is right and what is wrong; a moral argument for the existence of God would say that this mutual understanding is proof of God's existence. Immanuel Kant put forward this argument (although, not a moral argument); God as the source of objective morality. Firstly, he addressed the categorical imperative; our own sense of duty, and that being moral was case of following this principle, for example, paying your debts....   [tags: Religion Argument Analysis]

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Marijuana Use - A Persuasive Argument

- Richard Lowry has been the editor of National Review since 1997. He joined the magazine’s staff in 1992 after graduating from the University of Virginia, where he edited a conservative monthly magazine called the Virginia Advocate. In 1994, he moved to Washington, D.C. to cover Congress. At 33, Rich Lowry is not what most people expect of the editor of the National Review. Lowry is constantly taking readers by surprise, presenting them with his humor, his depth of knowledge and his enthusiasm....   [tags: Argument Analysis Legal Marijuana]

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Argument Analysis - Declaration of Independence

- Argument Analysis - Declaration of Independence In May of 1776 a resolution was passed at the Virginia Convention in Williamsburg that asked the thirteen American colonies to declare the United Colonies free and independent from the British crown. At the second continental congress the resolution passed and on June 11, 1776 a five-man committee led by Thomas Jefferson was established to write the Declaration of Independence. On July 4, 1776 the members of the second continental congress signed into existence one of the most influential documents in history....   [tags: Argument Analysis Declaration of Independence]

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Behind Mackie's Argument For Atheism

- Mackie in his paper Evil and Omnipotence, constructs an argument against the idea of the possibility of a God existing that has the characteristics laid out by the main religions: Christianity, Islam, and Judaism. These characteristics include that God is omnipotent, or He is capable of stopping evil, and omni benevolent, or He wants to eliminate evil and He is entirely good. Mackie systematically goes through his logical thought process as well as his response to any type of criticism or alternative solution that might arise....   [tags: Atheism Religion Argument]

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The Cosmological Argument is Self-contradictory

- The Cosmological Argument, also known as the First Cause Argument, is one of the most important arguments for the existence of God, not only because it is one of the more convincing, but also because it is one of the most used. The thought that everything that happens must have a cause and that the first cause of everything must have been God, is widespread. The cosmological argument is the argument from the existence of the world or universe to the existence of a being that brought it into and keeps it in existence....   [tags: Philosophy Religion First Cause Argument]

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Craig's Argument for the Existence of God

- Craig/Kalam’s Cosmological Argument One of the most argued topics throughout human history is whether or not God exists. It is argued frequently because there are several different reasonings and sub arguments in this main argument. People who believe God exists argue how God acts and whether there is one or several. People who do not believe God exists argue how the universe became into existence or if it has just always existed. In this paper, I will describe Craig's argument for the existence of God and defend Craig's argument....   [tags: cosmological arguments]

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The Cosmological Argument and the Mystical Argument

- The controversial topic involving the existence of God has been the pinnacle of endless discourse surrounding the concept of religion in the field of philosophy. However, two arguments proclaim themselves to be the “better” way of justifying the existence of God: The Cosmological Argument and the Mystical Argument. While both arguments attempt to enforce strict modus operandi of solidified reasoning, neither prove to be a better way of explaining the existence of God. The downfall of both these arguments rests on commitment of fallacies and lack of sufficient evidence, as a result sabotaging their validity in the field of philosophy and faith....   [tags: Existence of God]

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The Argument from Design by William Paley

- William Paley’s, The Argument from Design, talks a great deal about a being coming across a watch and questioning why the watch was there and how the watch was created there. He stated that there must have been a creator to the watch. Everything that has a design has a creator and that how nobody had ever seen the creator at work as he crafts this piece of art altogether to the point of where everything is put in place and has a purpose, that if even one thing was out of place that the watch would not tick, or for that matter, never work at all....   [tags: teleological arguments]

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Argument Against Euthanasia

- Euthanasia is a Greek word which means, gentle and easy death. However, it is the other way around. It is not a gentle or easy death because there is not a type of death which can called gentle in the world. According to Ian Dowbiggin, in Ancient Greece people used euthanasia without patient's permission. It means that, in Ancient Greece they did not care about the voluntariness. Also, there are just few doctors who adjust themselves according to the Hippocratic Oath. (250 pp.) After coming of Christianity, church learnt how evil suicide was and they told people killing another person or themselves was a brutal behavior....   [tags: Argument Against Assisted Suicide]

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Ernst Mayr's One Long Argument - Creationism vs. Evolutionism

- Ernst Mayr's One Long Argument - Creationism vs. Evolutionism Challenging the accepted order of society always brings a wave of criticism and contempt. In Ernst Mayr's One Long Argument, he aggressively brings to the forefront of debate the notion that his predecessors had heatedly argued for years, that man is not a divinely created creature, but rather just another animal in a state of constant change. Examining the path Charles Darwin, had followed in his attempt to better understand the evolutionary path of man, noted biologist Ernst Mayr explains Darwinian theory in respects to not only evolution but also in respect to the belief that man is somehow a creature made of a higher d...   [tags: Argumentative Persuasive Argument Essays]

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Epicurus 's Argument On The Death Argument

- Epicurus’s Death argument is very simple, and thus can be hard to refute. The basic premise is that is that no one feels any pain while they are dead, thus being dead is not a painful experience, so being dead is not bad for the one who is dead. My goal for this paper is to prove how those premises fails. In section 1 I will explain in greater detail Epicurus’s argument, in section 2 I will attack those arguments citing various theoretical examples, and in section 3 I will defend my attacks against potential rebuttals....   [tags: Suffering, Pain, Philosophical terminology]

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Argument in an Essay

- Argument can be defined as claim or thesis statement. The aim of an argument is to convince audience. It is essential to make sound argument so that audience could engage in and align with the author’s view. Therefore, one of the key elements could be identified as the awareness of audience. Another key element is evidence. In order to persuade audience, argument should be consolidated through evidence and authority. The credibility of author and argument could be enhanced by means of using evidence and referring to authorities....   [tags: Education, College, Thesis]

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The No Selves Argument

- Thomas Nagel, in “Brain Bisection and the unity of consciousness,” presents a thesis for the nonexistence of selves in human beings. Selves, in the case of Nagel’s argument, are the physiological bases of mind that constitute the subject of experience. A self may be thought of as the fundamental person, or the “Personal Identity”. There has been substantial difficulty in identifying the number of persons present in a human being, and the initial and seemingly apparent answer of “one” becomes less convincing upon inspection of further evidence....   [tags: Neurology]

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An Argument for Conservatism

- Neoconservatism is a variant of the conservative ideology which holds positions that fall between traditional and individualistic conservatism (Ball and Dagger, 2011b, p. 113). Many of the ideas and beliefs that neoconservatives hold, which continue to evolve today, were developed in the 1970s by “disillusioned liberal intellectuals” as a result of the tumultuous societal conditions that were occurring in the United States at the time (Ball and Dagger, 2011a, p. 170). To elaborate more fully, author Irving Kristol, the man known as the godfather of neoconservatives, says, “Many neoconservatives can be described as disenchanted welfare liberals....   [tags: neoconservatism, conservative ideology]

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Annotated Argument-The Belle Curve

- Table of Contents The Bell Curve Chapter 1 – “Cognitive Class and Education, 1900-1990 1) It is not just the case that more people are going to college, but that the brighter students are the ones attending. 2) Admission became more related to I.Q. than in the past. 3) There is a small part of the population that are expected to fill positions of power, yet they cannot relate to the majority of the population. Chapter 2 – “Cognitive Partitioning By Occupation 1) The correlation between I.Q....   [tags: Annotated Argument]

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An Argument Against Gun Control

- Should the mere fact that criminals committing crimes with the use of guns infringe the national right of the innocent to possess guns. This is a question that arouses everywhere and no matter which way it is viewed the controversy will always go on. "A gun is a mere tool that can be used for good or evil. Our country is based on the belief that man is good until he or she is proven to be otherwise."(Harris p.2) This means that only a few people are committing crimes with uses of guns and why completely remove them from society....   [tags: Argument Against Gun Control]

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The Teleological Argument

- William Paley and David Hume’s argument over God’s existence is known as the teleological argument, or the argument from design. Arguments from design are arguments concerning God or some type of creator’s existence based on the ideas of order or purpose in universe. Hume takes on the approach of arguing against the argument of design, while Paley argues for it. Although Hume and Paley both provide very strong arguments, a conclusion will be drawn at the end to distinguish which philosophiser holds a stronger position....   [tags: Philosophy/Religion]

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The Bachelor's Argument

- Dan Moller defends the argument he calls “the bachelor’s argument,” which is an “argument against marriage.” By pointing out how not everyone that gets married isn’t guaranteed a happy and successful out come, such as a happy and loving marriage. If we were follow through with the bachelor’s argument as if it was set standard set in stone, not giving marriage a chance could possibly lead to the lose of one finding true because they never got a chance to marry the person they thought they’d love and could have lasting relationship....   [tags: Relationships]

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An Arrogant Argument

- One of the most destructive and arrogant persons in history was Adolf Hitler. The destruction that he and his regime brought on humanity has seldom seen its equal. In reality the Holocaust was a terrible horror, but in Hitler’s mind it was merely a brushstroke in the masterpiece that he believed he was creating. Hitler believed that the Aryan race was superior to all others and that it was only natural, and not cruel, that the higher would show no humanity toward the lower (296). This prejudiced belief predominated Hitler’s thinking....   [tags: Literary Analysis ]

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Argument of Power

- In this paper I am addressing the following question; are conditional accounts of forgiveness true. Conditional forgiveness is when the victim does not forgive the wrongdoer until he/she repents or comes forth with some type of merciful act. “Conditional accounts traditionally make the appropriateness of forgiveness conditional on the severity of the offense and the attitudes and behavior of the offender.” (Wolfendale, 344) Conditional account, waiting to forgive until the wrongdoer repents, leaves the power in the hands of the wrongdoer....   [tags: Case Study]

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Clarifying an Argument

- Clarifying an Argument Sherry Turkle, a professor at MIT, current director of the MIT initiative on Technology and Self, in her 2007 “Can You Hear Me Now?” for Forbes Magazine, she addresses the topic of technology and discusses society’s growing attachment and alienation caused by it. Turkle wrote the article for an educated, older and business interested audience, there are references and terms that need clarification for most people. She discusses the Blackberry throughout the article, which is not concretely defined....   [tags: Article Analysis, Technology Effects]

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Argument for Euthanasia

- Argument for Euthanasia You were in a tragic car accident on your way to work. You have been in coma for years. Your family is not only devastated because of your state, they are also having a hard time trying to pay off all of your expenses. You were not insured, and your family is forced to keep paying the bills needed to keep you “alive”. Your family is going completely bankrupt and you still show no sign of getting better. Your family wants to pull the plug, but doing so would be illegal in the United States; so the doctor doesn’t permit this....   [tags: Healthcare System, Patient Rights]

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The Arguments Against The Arguing Atheism Argument

- The Arguments Against the Arguing Atheism Argument If this was an essay on English grammar, alliteration would be the culpable culprit. The empiricist’s notions of ‘knowledge’ --i.e. what can be known and how—and by whom, or rather, from what perspective/view/vantage— veer away from metaphorical language as aversions either from logic or rational observation within space and time; any argument based outside the data is therefore absent relevant meaning. It would seem that many atheistic notions prevalent in general western industrialized societies, while rarely comprising any orthodox, organized or consistent set of rules, are nonetheless increasingly pervading the culture, and in some r...   [tags: Atheism, God, Human, Theism]

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The Argument of Sociology is Based on Relationships

- Creating a good argument, this is an argument which will persuade the opposing side into accepting that the claim which was made, as well as the grounds of the claim, is different for each social science. It is usual for individuals to pull from their personal experiences, their views, morals, and interpretation of things when formulating an argument. The same goes for the various social sciences. Each social science approaches an argument in a different manner, and gives different aspects of an argument a higher regard....   [tags: Sociology Essays]

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Fallacies And The Weak Arguments By Learning

- Fallacies reference to the weak arguments by learning or hearing some different terms could be an error. It is crucial to understand the concept of the logical fallacies, without understating the point of the arguments the arguments might turn to be weak instant of being persuasive. In order to attempting someone we need first to identify the problem and avoid the confusion. Most of the common argument are not strong and feeble to be the point. Sometimes the Fallacies argument can be persuasive at least to the casual reader or the listener....   [tags: Fallacy, Argument, Critical thinking]

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The Argument For The Existence Of God

- ... It states that God is the most great, or perfect, and thus must exist because a God who exists is greater than a God who does not. Although there are several different versions of this argument, they all conclude that such a great being, God, exists. This argument is fueled by two theories. The first states that we have a rational idea of some being that epitomizes every perfection. That we have a clear idea of a being that epitomizes all properties that create a great being. The second follows the first in saying that existence in itself is considered perfection....   [tags: Existence, Ontology, Theology]

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Argument Essay : ' The Wrongfulness Of Euthanasia '

- ... Upon further examination, I found that others, who may not hold the same beliefs that I have, might easily find something to disagree with Gay-Williams. The first area where this appears in his paper is where Gay-Williams states that “Euthanasia does violence to this natural goal of survival. It is literally acting against nature because all the processes of nature are bent towards the end of bodily survival.” (Gay-Williams 3) This approach goes along with the Fitness Model of Natural Law Theory, in that the body is naturally supposed to repair itself and lead on to survival, self, species, and DNA....   [tags: Death, Euthanasia, Medical ethics, Religion]

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Descartes ' Argument For The Existence Of God

- Descartes’ Argument for the Existence of God In Descartes’ second meditation, he offers up an argument for Defective Nature Doubt that brings forth the idea that we can’t be certain of anything we perceive being actual and real (153). Descartes thinks that there is a possibility that we are constantly being deceived due to the fact that we don’t know, with perfect certainty, know where our ideas originate from (154). He tries to describe a method in order to dispel this Defective Nature Doubt by giving an argument for the existence of God....   [tags: Mind, Thought, Human, Existence]

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The Invalidity of the Cosmological Argument

- ... These ways have started philosophers to debate and question his arguments ultimately made the cosmological argument debatable. The cosmological argument is however not a valid argument in explaining the existence of god because the conclusions do not logically follow the premises. The main point in the cosmological argument is the first cause. As stated (by Aquinas) the world cannot be infinite and must have an initial cause, known as god. This was Aquinas’ second way, efficient causes. Aquinas’s used physical observations on Earth to come up with his theory, nothing can being itself into existence....   [tags: god, universe, fallacy]

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The Argument For Skepticism About Induction

- In this paper I will review the argument for skepticism about induction, specifically Dr. Jackson’s reconstruction of David Hume’s work. Reasoning inductively is defined as reasoning based on what one has experienced or observed to occur in the past, and then taking these past events to try to reason what will occur in the future. I will break down and explain the argument given as how I see and understand it. I will discuss how Hume draws his argument and moves from his premises to his lemmas, and ultimately his conclusion, in Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding....   [tags: Logic, Inductive reasoning, Reasoning, Philosophy]

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The Layouts Of Arguments By Toulmin

- Chapter three, “The Layouts of Arguments,” of Toulmin’s The Uses of Argument described a model that can be applied to an argumentative piece of text. The purpose of the model is to assist in analyzing a piece of text. The model consists of data, claim, warrants, qualifiers, rebuttals, and backing. Toulmin starts by creating a simile between an argument and organism stating that they are both wholes created through small details. Arguments must be analyzed to determine whether it is valid of invalid, and by following a certain form they can be more credible....   [tags: Logic, Argument, Premise, Fallacy]

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The Argument For The Existence Of God

- St. Thomas Aquinas presents five arguments to demonstrate the existence of God. However, this paper focuses on the fifth argument. The fifth argument is regarded as the Teleological Argument and states that things that lack intelligence act for some end or purpose. While the fifth argument satisfies God’s existence for Aquinas, some contemporary readers would argue that Aquinas neglects the laws of physics. Others argue that Aquinas allows a loophole in his argument so that the Catholic conception of God is not the only intelligent designer....   [tags: Soul, Metaphysics, Aristotle, Logic]

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Working For The Success And The Completion Of The Argument

- While our first assignment was a group argument, the process was difficult at first, however, afterwards it was proved to me that it was more easy that what I had imaged it to be. Working in groups help in the development of my communication skills, however, I observed that I had many things to learn and the communication between my partners and me was truly necessary for the success and the completion of the argument. The argument was difficult to create and write, however, due to the work effort of all my partners and all their contribution to the writing of the argument it help me understand personally that we needed to work together....   [tags: Critical thinking, Learning, Knowledge, Writing]

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The Argument Of The Theory Of Knowledge

- ... To elaborate on abstraction and the cases of his agreement and disagreement, he goes back to Locke 's account of ABSTRACT general ideas. He addresses Locke 's assigning abstraction merely to human being for the reason “that we observe in them no use of words or any other general signs; which is built on this supposition--that the making use of words implies the having general ideas” and from there it follows that “men who use language are able to ABSTRACT or GENERALIZE their ideas” (p.5) He quotes from Essay on Human Understanding, where Locke in response to the question that how we can make general ideas from particulars responds that that “Words become general by being made the signs o...   [tags: Mind, Metaphysics, George Berkeley, Perception]

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Reading Response : Argument And Analysis

- Reading Response: Argument and Analysis 1. What are the multiple purposes for arguing. What are the goals/intentions/motivations for each. In this please also make the distinction between “argument,” “persuasion” and “propaganda.” • The multiple purposes for arguing include arguments to inform, to convince, arguments to persuade, to explore, and arguments to make decisions; in addition, arguments to meditate or pray. Moreover, the overall intention of the arguments is to bring the truth by the use of evidence, which it leads to convictions....   [tags: Rhetoric, Regulatory Focus Theory, Logic]

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Abortion : An Argument For A Secular Audience

- Abortion Taking out the trash, or taking a human life. That is what most the argument is with abortion, some believe that abortion is okay because the fetus is not yet a person, and that the fetus will be nothing but trouble. On the other side people believe that even all the way down to the zygote (when sperm meets the egg and earliest stage of pregnancy) there is a human growing in you. A growing boy or girl, with their own little fingers, and toes, their own cute as can be toothless smile, and their functioning organs....   [tags: Pregnancy, Abortion, Want, Fetus]

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The 's Argument On The Personhood Of A Fetus

- “I argue that it is personhood, and not genetic humanity, which is the fundamental basis for membership in the moral community” (133). This is the central idea in Mary Anne Warren’s argument on the personhood of a fetus. She argues that in order for a genetic human being to be considered a person, he or she would have to possess all of the six criteria’s of personhood which include sentience, ability to reason and emotionality. In order to determine the viability of the personhood of a fetus she argues two things....   [tags: Morality, Ethics, Virtue ethics, Human]

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Descartes Argument for the Existence of God

- Descartes employs what is known as an ontological argument to prove the existence of God. Saint Anselm who lived during the 11th century first formulated this type of argument. Since then it has proved popular with many philosophers including Rene` Descartes. Even though ontological arguments have lost popularity with modern philosophers there has been some recent attempts to revive them. Descartes formulation is regarded as being one of the best because it is straight forward and relatively easy to follow....   [tags: philosophy, theology]

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1171 words | (3.3 pages) | Preview

Argument Against The Morality Of Abortion

- Explain how it is that the notion of what it is to be a person (or a human) is relevant to evaluating certain arguments against the morality of abortion. (Given an example of such an argument.) What are some of the different views that have been proposed. Which view of the nature of persons seems most reasonable. What do you conclude from this about the morality of abortion. The two sides of the aisle when it comes to abortion are separated by a gray area of when life begins. Primarily there are two sides, pro-choice/pro-abortion or pro-life where “pro” means in favor of so it is whether they are in favor of “choice”/abortion or in favor of life....   [tags: Human, Morality, Ethics, Human rights]

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The Dream Argument By Rene Descartes

- “I know for certain that I am standing up; it is absolutely certain that I am; there is not the smallest chance that I am not.”-G.E Moore. Rene Descartes, introduced the Dream Argument, where he believed that we cannot trust our senses because at some point in an individual’s life they might be dreaming and believe that what was occurring during that dream was reality. This argument, was opposed to by G.E Moore where used evidence and knowledge to flip over the dream argument. He finds that Descartes, argument was very inconsistent....   [tags: Mind, Epistemology, Metaphysics, René Descartes]

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The Dream Argument by Rene Descartes

- One of Rene Descartes’s most famous arguments, from his not only from his first meditation but all of the meditations, is his Dream Argument. Descartes believes that there is no way to be able to distinguish being in awake from being in a state of dreaming. In fact you could actually be in a dream right now. Rene Descartes’s theory that one is unable distinguish being awake from dreaming, as interesting as it is, can be at times a little farfetched, along with a few contradictions to himself, Descartes’s dream argument does not entitle himself to any sort of claim....   [tags: Descartes Theory, Dreaming, Awake]

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Argument Of Moral Relativism : A Critique

- ... If we live in a society as Stace described, without certain moral standards, what is right or wrong would only depend on whether your group is big/strong enough. In this case, a larger group means more people and power, so you have to follow these large groups in order to be protected. It would bring us to primitive society, where no law existed, only several groups competed with each other. It is quite obvious that now we live in a society which accepts that there is a universal moral standard exists....   [tags: Morality, Moral relativism, Relativism, Truth]

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The Argument For Utilitarianism And The Virtue Theory

- Each of the theories from the second term of this class have pros and cons. I do not believe any theory is completely perfect, but there is one I felt that is superior. Between the utilitarian, the deontological, and the virtue theory; I believe the virtue theory has the most compelling arguments. The utilitarian and deontological theories have too many flaws they cannot argue against without changes to the theory itself. Aristotle’s virtue theory does not have many weaknesses that will cause it to fall flat....   [tags: Virtue, Ethics, Deontological ethics]

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An Argument for the Permissibility of Active Euthanasia

- Recently I have gone through the very difficult struggle of seeing my father come face to face with death. He was in the hospital, in a comatose state for nearly eight days. During that time, because he left me as his medical proxy, I was the one that made the decision about what course of action was to be take. It is my aim in this paper to address the question of whether or not it is ever permissible to actively aid in the death of another person. I will attempt to argue that active euthanasia can at times not only be permissible, but the correct action to take....   [tags: Assisted Suicide, Right to Die]

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Analysis Of The Article ' The Basic Argument '

- ... The choices that people make are made within the limits of “how they are.” People act as reactions to the things they are taught are morally and socially acceptable or unacceptable. People are also forced to act within the physical restraints of their location, height, weight, etc. These are all outside influences and not organic of the person’s inner being in that time and place. “To be responsible for how one acts, one must be responsible for how one is” which, according to Strawson, is impossible because of the outside influences we have steadily received from our families, those that we know and interact with, and society throughout our entire lives....   [tags: Thought, Mind, Free will, Human]

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The Argument Against The American Government

- ... In the rebuttal the writer is trying to counter an argument the reader might have against the claim. The final part of the Toulmin argument is the qualifier. Qualifier statements limit the strength of the writers claim. For example “Most sports bettors do not have an addiction to gambling”. These claims help the writer gain credibility because he is acknowledging his main claim could have problems. The Toulmin strategy is a great argumentative piece because it does not just debate with stats and statements supporting the writer’s topic....   [tags: Writing, Rhetoric, Gambling, Essay]

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Argument On The Defense Of Abortion

- ... So, if everyone has a right to life then you have the right to decide what happens with your own body and are not obligated to do anything to help this person. So in this situation even though the violinists being plugged into you is what is keeping him alive your right as a person to control what is happening to your own body can over ride the concept of you being the source of another persons life. Which this argument directly correlates with a women having to carry a child around in her womb and whether or not she wants to sit through that situation or even intended on dealing with that situation....   [tags: Pregnancy, Abortion, Human rights, Human]

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Defense Of Drones : A Historical Argument

- ... The tool with which the British killed the Mahdi soldier’s does not ultimately matter, as the end result is the same. In this particular instance, a bullet fired from a Maxim is no qualitatively different a than bullet fired from a Lee-Metford rifle. This logical structure can be applied to the present day as well: a Hellfire launched from a Predator is no qualitatively different than a Hellfire launched from an Apache. The projectile carries the lethal force to the target, not the launcher....   [tags: World War II, War, Colonialism, Army]

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The Argument Of A Defense Of Abortion

- Abortion is one of the most argued premise. There are diverse opinions about this procedure throughout, whether it is right or not, who gets to decide, if it is fair at all to decide who’s life is more valuable. We encounter arguments based on different scenarios and each has a justification to it. An article by Thomson, J.J., “A Defense of Abortion” talks about many such scenarios. This essay identifies the relevant argument that Thomson needs to provide and also evaluates whether Thomson 's actual arguments succeed in doing what 's needed....   [tags: Pregnancy, Abortion, Fetus, Uterus]

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The Is The Best Theodicy Argument

- ... The second argument understands suffering to be divine punishment of the unrighteous and chastisement of the faithful. (Migliore 128) This view paints God as the punisher to both the wicked and the righteous, and that suffering is the result of one’s own actions. This argument sees the relationship between sin and suffering far too simply. Although, there is some Biblical support for this view in the old testament, it does not mirror the character of God revealed in Jesus Christ. The third argument proclaims suffering as something that turns us to God and helps to cultivate our hope for eternal life....   [tags: Jesus, Christianity, Theodicy, New Testament]

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The Argument Of Ancient Greek Historians

- We do not know who ruled Crete. This is due to the fact that a lot of the archaeological evidence on Crete has been destroyed. While some historians believe that Crete was ruled by a king, others believe that it was ruled by a group of priestesses. The Argument of Ancient greek Historians The ancient historians all suggests that there was a monarchy on Crete. Specifically, they argue that there was a king, named Minos, who ruled Crete. However, archaeologists have not yet uncovered any evidence which proves that Minos existed....   [tags: Minoan civilization, Knossos, Crete, Linear B]

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1132 words | (3.2 pages) | Preview

The Argument Of Parenting And Its ' Results

- The Argument of Parenting and Its’ Results Nowadays and throughout the past century or so there has been a major argument on what parenting styles are okay and why. Not only this though but also is it okay to raise your kid like an adult from their youth. Jeannette Walls had an upbringing that we find out in the book “The Glass Castle” that many of us would find insane and couldn 't live like. From a young age she was exposed to poverty, harassment, and even from her dad, alcoholism. Most kids couldn’t live like this because they are too underdeveloped to know what 's really happening and how to handle the situation....   [tags: Parent, Mother, Father, Parenting]

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The Research Problem And Argument Of The Assigned

- ... o Reward element are stated by Boss et al. (2009) “individuals are rewarded based on following a prescribed behavior or meeting a target outcome” (as cited in Chow et al., 1995;Kirsch, 2004) o Precautions taken as defined by Boss et al. (2009) is “the degree to which individuals perceive they take measures to secure their computers and deal with information security in accordance with prescribed corporate security policies and procedures as well as through individual, proactive actions.” o Mandatoriness as defined by Boss et al....   [tags: Information security, Security, Policy]

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1318 words | (3.8 pages) | Preview

The Strongest Argument Of Defense Of Abortion

- In this essay, I will hold that the strongest argument in defence of abortion was provided by Judith Jarvis Thompson. She argued that abortion is still morally permissible, regardless if one accepts the premise that the foetus is a person from the moment of conception. In what follows, I agree that abortion is permissible in the ‘extreme case’ whereby the woman’s life is threatened by the foetus. Furthermore, I agree that abortion is permissible to prevent future pain and suffering to the child....   [tags: Pregnancy, Fetus, Abortion, Childbirth]

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What Is The Author 's Argument?

- What is the author 's argument. S. E. Hinton’s argument is given from the perspective of a 14 year old Greaser named Pony boy Curtis who is being raised by his older brothers Darrel and Soda pop. The theme of the Outsiders is no matter what side you may grow up on whether you are a Greaser or a Socs, that you all can still have the same problems, see the same solutions, and dream the same dreams. You are also able to see how his character grows up and matures during the various interactions throughout this book....   [tags: S. E. Hinton, The Outsiders, The Outsiders, Crime]

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The Argument Culture By Deborah Tannen

- ... Tannen structures her article to explain different parts of the culture then persuade you to make change, all these ideas slowly add up to reach her conclusion. “More and more, our public interactions have become like arguing with a spouse” (Tannen 404). Many can relate to the argument style of a couple which gives an easier understanding for the audience. Tannen uses a persuasive/descriptive writing style to convey her idea of an “argument culture.” It’s smart that Tannen combined these two styles because if the article is descriptive then Tannen is more likely to persuade someone to believe your argument or idea....   [tags: Rhetoric, Persuasion, Critical thinking]

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1122 words | (3.2 pages) | Preview

The Ontological Argument Of God

- ... If we accept that God is such that ‘nothing greater can be conceived’ (Anselm), then analytically, we must accept that he exists, as to deny his existence would be self-contradictory. This is because something that exists in both the mind and in reality is always greater than something that exists solely in the mind; and so God must exist in both, and this is what Anselm argues – ‘something that which nothing greater can be conceived…does not exist just in the intellect’ (Flood). Another distinctive feature is the a priori nature of the argument – ‘it proceeds from the idea of God’ (Cole)....   [tags: Ontology, Existence, Metaphysics, Atheism]

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1026 words | (2.9 pages) | Preview

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